Ontario’s drug laws in fall under the purview of Canada’s Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) rather than Canada’s Criminal Code. Depending upon the seriousness of the charges, police and the courts can pursue charges as an indictable offence or a summary offence. Penalties for summary conviction offences typically include fines and a possible maximum penalty of two years in jail. While much less serious than an indictable offence, a summary conviction can still result in a criminal record. A conviction for the far more serious indictable offence carries penalties that range from two years to life in prison, as well as fines, other repercussions, and an almost certain criminal record.
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